Alena Ledeneva on Informality and „Corruption“

Alena Ledeneva on Informality and "Corruption"

Informal reciprocity based exchanges are the „natural default mode of human behavior“ (Francis Fukuyama) and come to be viewed as „corruption“ only if a state and legal order is superimposed over traditional stateless communities. Therefore, „corruption“ is to be found all around the globe in different forms, and in the history of the state as well. The global encyclopedia of informality ( collects these practices to make it possible to study them in a systematically comparative way.

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